India to Spend US$ 70bn on Green IT and Sustainability Solutions by 2015

Per Gartner study released on Oct 3, 2012, ICT industry will be the early adopter of green IT and sustainability solutions in India. Niyasys is glad to share that we are leading Green-IT movement in education sector in India. Niyasys is will extend all the support industry and the Government would need to make  India – a Sustainability-Friendly Nation. 

Gartner Study Findings: India’s spending on green IT and sustainability initiatives will double from US$ 35 billion in 2010 to US$70 billion in 2015, according to Gartner.

In the Gartner report “Hype Cycle for Green IT and Sustainability in India, 2012,” Gartner says – “For the first time, a chapter on sustainable development and climate change was introduced in the government’s annual Indian Economic Survey, 2011-2012. The survey has suggested making lower-carbon sustainable growth a central element of India’s 12th five year plan, which commenced in April 2012. This will set the tone for future policy initiatives and regulatory measures from the Indian government that will drive the implementation of some technologies—such as advanced metering infrastructure, carbon capture and sequestration, intelligent transportation system, solar energy technology, building integrated PV systems, ecolabels and footprints, combined heat and power technology, e-waste, distributed power generation, and water management—necessary to usher in low-carbon sustainable growth.”

As enterprises embrace IT to improve productivity and drive growth, penetration of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) infrastructure has grown rapidly during the past decade, as has the energy consumption and resulting carbon emissions of India’s ICT infrastructure.

“The operational cost of making energy-efficient resources available is pressuring CIOs in Indian companies to develop strategies to optimize ICT utilization—including companywide energy management—while not compromising on the growth or deployment of newer technologies,” Gartner said. “We are already beginning to see the use of energy-efficient technology in data centers, manufacturing facilities, and public buildings in India.”

For complete Gartner report refer to:

KVM Architecture

X86 virtualization is playing key role in cloud computing and became wide spread  through server consolidation.KVM is a open source virtualization solution with world-class perfomance.It is closely associated to Linux because it used kernel as bare metal hypervisor.KVM kernel module is merged into the Linux and being maintained as a part of kernel. So, the host running KVM will be running Linux kernel and KVM kernel module. This approach takes benefit of insight that modern hypervisors should deal with wide range of complex hardware and resource management challenges that have been already solved in OS kernels.KVM works with different hardware supported by Linux.                                              

Components of virtualization with KVM

1.Kernel module(kvm-kmod)

2.Device emulator(qemu-kvm)

3.Management daemon (libvirtd)

4.User-facing tools (virt-manager,virsh,virt-tools)

Kernel Module (kvm-kmod)

It is the heart of the KVM which executes guest code directly on the host CPU safely. It was made efficient by hardware virtualization extensions. To allow unmodified guests to run without giving full access to memory and other resources, a new mode of execution was added by virtualization extensions.

Device Emulator (qemu-kvm)

Most of the I/O accesses are trapped instead of sending them directly to host devices when guest code is executing directly on host CPU in safe manner. The emulated chipset and PCI bus are visible to guest on which both emulated and pass through adapters can be added. The paravirtulaized networking, storage and memory ballooning drivers improves efficiency of I/O and allows you to adjust RAM size of guest at run time.qemu-kvm performs device emulation in user space of host. This helps in making kernel module to focus on most performance-critical aspects while emulator emulates hardware devices in an isolated process outside of the host kernel.

The sVirt feature restricts qemu-kvm process to access only files and required resources using SELinux Mandatory Access Control

Management Daemon (libvirtd)

To access and monitor guests running on local or remote hosts management tools are needed. These tools can be developed using set of APIs and utilities that enable applications to manipulate guests and automate management tasks.Libvirt provide language bindings and command line utilities to develop applications.

Each host runs libvirt daemon for secured remote or local management. It maintains guest configurations across reboot and it is the central point for setting up networking and storage pools

User-facing tools (virt-manger, virsh, virt-tools)

The command line tool virsh which uses libvirt API will be helpful for most of the administration work. The virt-manger graphical UI is used to manage local or remote guests. Third party management tools such as cloud stacks can be used for high level data centre or cloud management and typically integrated with libvirt.




Green-IT Solution from Niyasys attracting many Engineering Colleges in India


Niyasys Technologies ( has launched their integrated Green-IT solution, called togdi, in Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu states. With acute power-cuts happening now, the Engineering Colleges are turning to togdi to save their monthly operating expenditure by 85% and capital expenditure by 65%. Its other features like – providing a green PC to every student in the college, without any additional hardware expenditure, is being well appreciated by college managements. Their CEO, Kesava Reddy Kasireddy, said that using this solution, a college using 500 traditional PCs can save two and half lakh units of power. Industry experts are appreciating Niyasys’ initiative for coming up with such an exciting solution including features such as Grid Computing, Virtualization, Green-IT (saving power too), Unified Labs, Lab Management, System Administration Automation, Courseware Management, eLearning and other technology features. Currently they are offering heavy discount as part of Launch Offer for Colleges in these 2 states. This is a golden opportunity for colleges to save power and optimize resources. More details about this solution can be freely obtained by sending an email to

Niyasys Leaves its Mark in Engg Colleges: Press

———————— An excerpt from “Trinity Mirror” News Paper (screenshot of clipping is also attached) ————————

Niyasys Leaves its Mark in Engg Colleges

Chennai, 23 June 2012:  

Niyasys launched their integrated Green-IT solution called togdi in Tamil Nadu.

The initiative along with Lab Management, System Administration Automation, eLearning Management and other technology features were appreciated by industry experts.

With acute power cuts, engineering colleges are turning to togdi to save their monthly operating expenditures by 85 percent and capital expenditure by 65 percent.

The idea of providing a green Personal Computer to every student in the college without additional expenditure has gone down well with the College Management.

Through this, a college using 500 traditional PCs can save two and half lakh units of power.

Heavy discounts are being offered as part of launch offer for colleges in Tamil Nadu for next four weeks.

More details at


Virtualization Techniques

To choose the best approach for the implementation of Virtualization,it is necessary to have knowledge on different virtualization techniques.According to Virtuatopia,there are four virtualization techniques, which are currently available in market.They are:

Guest Operating System Virtualization

In this scenario,the host operating system will be running standard unmodified operating system like Windows,Linux etc. The virtualization application will be running same as other applications like word processor or spreadsheet etc. The virtualization application involves in the process called Binary Writing, where it scans the instruction stream of executing guest OS and replaces privileged instructions with safe emulations.So,this process helps the guest OS to think that it is directly running on the physical hardware. The advantages are no changes required to host OS and no special CPU hardware virtualization support needed.

Examples:-VMware Server,Virtual Box.


Shared Kernel Virtualization

In this scenario, each virtual guest operating system will have its own root file system but shares the kernel of the host operating system. The biggest disadvantage is that the guest operating system should support the kernel version of host operating system.

Examples:-Linux Vserver, Solaris Zones and Containers, Free VPS and Open VZ.

Kernel Level Virtualization

In this scenario, each virtual guest operating system will have its own root file system and also have its own kernel. The advantage is good performance and no need to support kernel version of host operating system.

Examples:-User Mode Linux and Kernel-based Virtual Machine.


Hypervisor Virtualization

To understand the Hypervisor Virtualization, it is necessary to have knowledge on x86 family of CPUs.The x86 family of CPUs provides special range of protection levels called Rings in which code can execute. The ring in which operating system kernel runs is called Ring0.The code executing in Ring0 is said to be running in Kernel mode, System Space or Supervisor mode. All other applications code running on the operating system operates in less privileged ring, mostly Ring3.

In this scenario, a program known as Hypervisor runs directly on the system hardware in ring 0.As the hypervisor occupying Ring0, the kernels for any guest OS should operate in less privileged ring. But, most OS kernels are written explicitly to operate in Ring0.The reason is that they need to perform tasks that are available in that ring like directly manipulating memory and executing privileged CPU instructions. However, now following solutions are available to solve this problem:

Para Virtualization: In this the guest OS kernel is specially modified to run on the hypervisor. It involves the process of replacing any privileged operations that will only run in Ring0.The hypervisor in turn performs the task on behalf of guest kernel.The open source such as Linux can be freely altered but proprietary operating systems owners must agree to modify the kernel.

Full Virtualization:In this the guest OS kernel is unmodified.It can execute privileged operations although it is running in Ring0 of CPU.To do this the hypervisor provides CPU emulation to handle and modify protected and privileged CPU operations made by unmodified guest OS kernels.The disadvantage is the CPU emulation process requires both time and system resources which decreases the performance.

Hardware Virtualization: In this virtualization features are built into the latest generation of CPUs for both Intel and AMD.These technologies known as Intel VT and AMD-V respectively,provides extensions necessary to run unmodified guest virtual machines without CPU emulation.The new processors provides additional privileged mode leaving Ring0 for guest virtual machines.Examples: -Xen, VMware ESX Server and Microsoft Hyper-V.